Nu duidelijker met plaatsnamen. Ik kon alleen geen datum achterhalen van deze kaart. Deze lijkt van Nicolo Zeno te zijn uit Venetië.
Op wikipedia vond ik de volgende beschrijving en een ander kaartje.
The Zeno map is a map of the North Atlantic first published in 1558 in Venice by Nicolo Zeno, a descendant of Nicolo Zeno, of the Zeno brothers.
The younger Zeno published the map, along with a series of letters, claiming he had discovered them in a storeroom in his family's home in Venice. According to Zeno, the map and letters date from around the year 1400 and purportedly describe a long voyage made by the Zeno brothers in the 1390s under the direction of a prince named Zichmni. Supporters of the Henry Sinclair legend suggest that Zichmini is a mistranscription of d'Orkney. The voyage supposedly traversed the North Atlantic and, according to some interpretations, reached North America.
Over die datum nog: In éém van de boeken van D.Liakopoulos die ik heb gelezen staan er een aantal middeleeuwse kaarten die meerdere eilanden tonen dan tegenwoordige kaarten. Zowel hij als Arlington H. Mallery zijn die kaarten helemaal niet middeleeuwse, maar veel ouder, nu men in de middeleeuwen van geen gevorderde middelen beschikte om zo nauwwkeurige kaarten te maken. Volgens Liakopoulos zijn die kaarten uit de tijd vóór de oorlog tussen Griekenland en Atlantis, dus 9.600 v.ch. Toen heeft men hoge technologie gebruikt en op die manier is de aarde terug naar de steentijd gegaan. De middeleeuwse onderzoekers hebben dus die oeroude kaarten ergens gevonden en als hun eigen laten drukken. Hier is nog een kaart uit dat boek waar Friesland duidelijk staat. Ik had het niet gemerkt toen ik het boek las!
Wanneer je bovenin de rand van de kaart uit het boek van Liakopoulos kijkt, zie je dat het ook een kaart van Nicolo en Antonio Zeno is. Het lijkt ook sterk op de kaart erboven, die ik op wikipedia heb gevonden. De kaart van jou is wat verder uitgewerkt. Datum staat op LANO M.CCC.LXXX. Dat is het jaar 1380. De kaarten zijn uitgaven van oudere kaarten die gevonden zouden zijn in de berging van de familie Zeno.
Ik ben het hele verhaal over de gebroeders Zeno tegengekomen.
Het verhaal gaat dat Nicolo Zeno schipbreuk leed op de kust van het eiland Friesland. Er bestaat tegenwoordig veel twijfel of het eiland ooit bestaan heeft.
Het begint zo.
Nicolo Zeno, surnamed il Cavaliere, or the knight, had a strong desire to see distant countries, that he might become acquainted with the manners and languages of foreign nations, by which he might acquire credit and reputation, and might render himself the more useful to his country. Being a man of great property, he fitted out a ship with this view, at his own expence, in 1380, and sailed through the Straits of Gibraltar to the northwards, intending to visit England and Flanders. By a storm, which lasted many days, his ship was cast away on the coast of Frislanda.
The vessel was entirely lost, but the crew got safe on shore, and part of the cargo was saved. Zeno and his people were soon attacked by the natives, attracted by the hopes of a rich plunder, against whom they were hardly able, in their weary and weather-beaten state, to defend themselves; but, fortunately for them, Zichmni, or Sinclair, the reigning prince or lord of Porlanda, who happened to be then in Frislanda, and heard of their shipwreck, came in all haste to their relief, of which they stood in great need. After discoursing with them for some time in Latin, he took them under his protection; and finding Nicolo Zeno very expert both in naval and military affairs, he gave him, after some time, the post of admiral of his fleet, which Nicolo for some time refused, but at length accepted.
Not long afterwards, Nicola wrote an account of these circumstances to his brother Antonio, inviting him to come to Frislanda; who accordingly soon arrived there, and lived four years along with Nicolo in that country; and remained ten years in the service of Zichmni, or Sinclair, the prince of that country, after the death of his brother Nicolo.
Nicolo Zeno having been shipwrecked in 1380, on the island of Frislanda, and saved by prince Zichmni from the rude attacks of the natives, put himself and all his people under the protection of this prince, who was lord of certain islands lying to the south of Frislanda, which were called Porlanda, and were the most fertile and most populous of all the islands in those parts. Zichmni, or Sinclair, was besides this duke of Sorany, a place which lies on one side of Scotland. Of these northern parts, I, Antonio Zeno, have constructed a map, which hangs up in my house; and which, though it be much decayed by time, may serve to give some information to the curious.
Zichmni, the lord of all these countries, was a man of great courage and famous for his skill in navigation. The year before the arrival of Nicolo Zeno, he had defeated the king of Norway in a pitched battle, and was now come with his forces to conquer Frislandia, which is much larger than Iceland. On account of the knowledge of Nicolo Zeno in maritime affairs, the prince took him and all his crew on board his fleet, and gave orders to his admiral to treat him with the highest respect, and to take his advice in every affair of importance.
Zichmni had a fleet consisting of thirteen vessels, two of which only were galleys, the rest being small barks, and only one of the whole was a ship. With all these they sailed to the westward, and without much difficulty made themselves masters of Ledovo and Ilofe, and several other smaller islands; and turning into a bay called Sudero, in the haven of the town of Sanestol they took several small barks laden with fish; and here they found Zichmni, who came by land with his army, conquering all the country as he went. They stayed here but a short time, and then shaped their course to the westwards, till they came to the other cape of the gulf or bay, and here turning again, they found certain islands and broken lands, all of which they brought under subjection to Zichmni, or Sinclair. These seas were all full of shoals and rocks, insomuch that if Nicolo Zeno and the Venetian mariners had not acted as pilots, the whole fleet, in the opinion of all who were in it, must have been lost; so small was the skill of their people in comparison with ours, who had been trained up in the art and practice of navigation from their childhood. After the proceedings already mentioned, the admiral, by the advice of Nicolo Zeno, determined to make for the shore, at a town called Bondendon with a view to get intelligence of the success which Zichmni had met with in the prosecution of the war on land.
They here learned, to their great satisfaction, that he had fought a great battle, in which he had put the army of the enemy to flight; and in consequence of this intelligence, the inhabitants sent ambassadors from all parts of the island, agreeing to yield the country to his pleasure, and took down their flags and ensigns in every town and castle. It was therefore thought advisable to remain at Bondendan for his arrival, as they had received reports that he would certainly be there in a short time. On his arrival there were great congratulations and rejoicings, as well for the victory obtained by land as for the success of the naval expedition; and the Venetians were much honoured and extolled for their skill, every tongue being loud in their praises, and Nicolo Zeno was much applauded for his prowess. The prince caused Nicolo to be brought into his presence, and bestowed high commendations for the skill he had exerted in saving the fleet, and for the great valour he had displayed in the taking of many towns, where indeed there was no great difficulty or opposition; in reward for which he bestowed upon him the honour of knighthood, and distributed rich and liberal presents among his followers. Departing from Bondendon, the fleet returned in triumph to Frislanda, the chief city of which is situated on the south-east side of the island within a gulf, of which there are many in that island. In this gulf or bay, there are such vast quantities of fish taken, that many ships are yearly laden thence to supply Flanders, Britannia, England, Scotland, Norway, and Denmark; and the produce of this fishing brings great riches into the country.
The foregoing circumstances were contained in a letter sent by Nicolo Zeno to his brother Antonio, in which he invited him to come to Frislanda; and accordingly the latter set sail for this purpose, and, having surmounted many dangers, safely joined his brother in that far distant country. Antonio remained fourteen years in Frisland or Orkney; four years of that time along with his brother, and ten years alone after the death of Nicolo. The elder Zeno ingratiated himself so much into the favour of the prince, that he was appointed admiral of a fleet which was sent out upon an expedition against Estland, which lies between Frisland and Norway. The invaders committed great ravages in that country, but hearing that the king of Norway was coming against them with a considerable fleet, they departed in haste; and being assailed by a violent tempest, they were driven on certain shoals where a part of their ships were lost, and the remainder were saved upon Grisfand, a large but uninhabited island. The fleet of the king of Norway was overtaken by the same storm and mostly perished; of which Zichmni, who was personally engaged in this expedition, was apprized in consequence of one of the enemy's ships having likewise been forced to take refuge in Grisland. Finding himself driven so far to the north, and having repaired his ships, Zichmni now resolved to make an attack upon the island of Iceland, which was under the dominion of the king of Norway; but finding it too well fortified and defended for his small force, and reflecting that his diminished fleet was now in bad repair, he deemed it prudent to retire. In his way homewards, however, he made an attack upon the islands of Estland, of which there are seven in number. These are Tolas, Yeal or Zel; Broas, Brassa sound; Iscant, Unst or Vust; Trans, Trondra; Mimant, Mainland; Danbert; and Bres, or Bressa; all of which he plundered, and built a fort in Bres, where he left Nicolo Zeno in the command, with a sufficient garrison and a few small barks, while he returned himself to Frisland. In the ensuing spring, Nicolo Zeno resolved to go out upon discoveries; and, having fitted out three small vessels, he set sail in July, shaping his course to the northwards, and arrived in Engroveland, where he found a monastery of predicant friars, and a church dedicated to St Thomas, hard by a mountain that threw out fire like Etna or Vesuvius.
In this place there is a spring of boiling hot water, by means of which the monks heat their church, monastery, and cells. It is likewise brought info their kitchen, and is so hot that they use no fire for dressing their victuals; and by enclosing their bread in brass pots without any water, it is baked by means of this hot fountain as well as if an oven had been used for the purpose. The monks have also small gardens, covered over in winter, which being watered from the hot spring are effectually defended from the extreme cold and snow, which are so rigorous in this region so near the pole. By these means they produce flowers, and fruits, and different kinds of herbs, just as they grow in temperate climates; and the rude savages of those parts, from seeing these to them supernatural effects, take the friars for gods, and supply them with poultry, flesh, and various other things, reverencing the monks as their lords and rulers. When the frost and snow is considerable, the monks warm their apartments as before described, and by admitting the hot water, or opening their windows, they are able in an instant to produce such a temperature as they may require.
In the buildings of their monastery they use no more materials than are presented to them by the before mentioned volcano. Taking the burning stones which are thrown from the crater, they throw them, while hot, into water, by which they are dissolved into excellent lime; which, when used in building, lasts forever. The same stones, when cold, serve to make their walls and vaults, as they cannot be broken or cut except with an iron instrument. The vaults which they build with these stones are so light as to require no props for supporting them. On account of these great conveniences, the monks have constructed so many walls and buildings of different kinds, as is really wonderful to see. The coverings or roofs of their houses are constructed for the most part in the following manner: Having carried the wall to its full height, they make it to incline or bend in gradually till it form a regular vault. They are little incommoded with rain in this country; as the climate is so extremely cold, that the first snow that falls does not thaw for nine months.
The monks live mostly on fish and wild fowl; for, in consequence of the boiling hot water running into a large and wide haven of the sea, that bay is kept from freezing, and there is so great a concourse of sea fowl and fish in that place, that they easily take as many of them as they can possibly have occasion for, with which they maintain a great number of people round about, whom they keep constantly employed either in building or in catching fish and fowls, and in a thousand other necessary occupations relative to the monastery. The houses of these natives are built on the hill near the monastery, of a round form, about twenty-five feet wide at the bottom, and growing gradually narrower as they go up, in a conical form, ending in a small hole at top, to admit light and air; and the floor of the house is so hot, that the inhabitants feel no cold within doors at any season. To this place many barks resort in summer from the neighbouring islands, from the cape above Norway, and from Trondon or Drontheim, which bring to the fathers all kind of commodities and merchandize that they have occasion for; taking fish in exchange, dried either in the sun or by means of cold, and the furs of various animals. The commodities brought here for sale are, wood for fuel, wooden utensils, very ingeniously carved, corn, and cloth for making into garments. By these means the monks are plentifully supplied with every thing they need, in exchange for their furs and fish, which are in great request by all the neighbouring nations. Monks resort to this monastery from Norway and Sweden, and other countries; but principally from Iceland. It often happens that many barks are detained here ail the winter, by the sea becoming frozen over.
The fishermen's boats of this country are made in the form of a weaver's shuttle, long and narrow, and pointed at each end; constructed of a light frame of fish bones, cased all over with the skins of fishes, sewed together in many doubles, and so tight and strong, that it is wonderful to see the people bind themselves fast within them during storms, and allow the winds and waves to drive them about, without fear of their boats splitting or of themselves being drowned. Even when they are driven against a rock, they remain sound and without hurt or damage. In the bottom of each boat there is a kind of sleeve or nose, tied fast in the middle by a string; and when any water gets into the boat, they let it run into the upper half, of the sleeve, which they then fasten with two pieces of wood, after which they loosen the under band, and squeeze the water out; and they repeat this operation as often as may be necessary with great facility, and without danger.
The water, of the boiling spring, being sulphureous, is conveyed into the monastery, and the cells of the principal friars, by means of pipes made of copper, tin, or stone; and is so hot that it heats the apartments like a stove, without communicating any disagreeable or unwholesome stench. Their sweet water for drinking is conveyed in a subterraneous canal of masonry, into a great copper reservoir in the middle of the court of the convent; and this reservoir being contained within a larger bason supplied from the boiling, spring, is continually kept of a proper temperature, and prevented from freezing. This they use in the preparation of their victuals, for drinking, and for watering their gardens. Thus they derive much convenience and comfort from the adjoining volcano, and these good friars make it their chief study to keep their gardens in order, and to erect commodious and even elegant buildings. For this latter purpose they are in no want of good workmen and ingenious artizans, as they give good wages, so that there is a great resort of workmen and artizans of every denomination; they are likewise very bountiful to those who carry them fruits, and seeds, and other articles; and as great profits are to be made, and provisions are very cheap, there is a great resort of workmen and artists of every denomination, and of traders to this place. Most of these monks speak Latin, particularly the superiors and principals of the monastery.
This is all that is known of Engroveland or Greenland, from the relation of Nicolo Zeno, who gives likewise a particular description of a river that he discovered, as is to be seen in the map which I, Antonio Zeno, have drawn of all these countries. Not being able to bear the cold of these northern and inhospitable regions, Nicolo Zeno fell sick, and soon afterwards returned to Frisland, where he died. He left two sons behind him, John and Thomas; the latter of whom had likewise two sons, Nicolo, the father of the celebrated Cardinal Zeno, and Peter, from whom was descended the rest of the Zenos who are now living. After the death of Nicolo, his fortune, honours, and dignity, devolved upon his brother Antonio; and, though he made great supplications and entreaties for the purpose, he was not permitted to return to his native country; as Zichmni, who was a man of a high spirit and great valour, had resolved to make himself master of the sea, and for this purpose made use of the talents and advice of Antonio, and ordered him to go with a few barks to the westwards, because in the summer several islands had been discovered by some of the fishermen. Of this voyage and the discoveries which were made in consequence of it, Antonio gives an account in a letter to his brother Carlo, which we here give exactly as it was written, having only altered a few antiquated words.
===========  Faira, or Fara, in the Orkneys, called Farras-land, and corrupted into Feislanda or Frisland.--Forst.  Mr Forster is not happy in his explanation of this word, Porlanda or Porland, which he endeavours to derive from Fara-land; precisely the same with Fris-land from Faras-land, only dropping the genitive s. Porland seems used as a general name of the earldom, perhaps connected with the strange name Pomona, still used for mainland, the largest of the Orkney islands; Frisland the particular Fara islands, or one of them.--E.  Sorany or Sorani, of which Sinclair is said to have been duke or lord, Mr Forster considers to have been the Sodor-oe, or southern islands of the Norwegians, or those now called the Western Islands; and traces the corruption from the Norwegian plural Suder-oer contracted Soroer, varied Soroen, and transmuted to Sorani. All this may be possible; but it does not appear in Scots history that the Sinclairs ever held the Western Islands, and certainly not at this period: Sorani ought therefore to be looked for in Caithness; or it may possibly refer to Roslin near Edinburgh, which belonged to the family of Sinclair.--E.  By this latter distinction, Zeno probably means a decked vessel.--E.  It is hardly possible to mention all the little islands, and the places situated on the largest of the Orcadian Islands, which by the ancients was called Pomona, and on account of its size, is likewise called Mainland, also Hross-ey, i.e. Gross-ey, or large island. The town was called Kirkiu-og or the harbour near the church, now called by the Scots, Kirkwall.--Forst. In this note Mr Forster wanders from the subject in hand, and his observations have no reference to the present expedition. Ledovo is probably the Island of Lewis, and Ilofe may possibly be Hay, though that conjecture would lead them too far to the south.--E.  Sudero, or Suder-oe, might mean the Western Islands so called by the Norwegians; but certainly here means some bay of Sutherland, as they here met the troops of Sinclair, who had marched by land. The town of Sanestol is quite inexplicable. Though Mr Forster supposes it to have been the cluster of islands called Schant, or Shanti-oer, which he thinks is here corrupted into Sanestol: But, if correct in our opinion, that they must have been on the main land of Scotland, his conjecture must be erroneous. These conquests could be nothing more than predatory, incursions, strangely exaggerated.--E.  This is a very early mention of salted fish, yet within the lifetime of William Beukels, the supposed inventor of the art of pickling herrings, who died in 1397. Professor Sprengel has shewn that herrings were caught at Gernemue, or Yarmouth, so early as 1283. In Leland's Collectanea we meet with a proof that pickled herrings were sold in 1273; and there are German records which speak of them so early as 1236. Vide Gerken, Cod. Diplom. Brandenb. I. 45. and II. 45l.--Forst.  This is certainly a place in the isle of Sky called Pondontown.--Forst.  Britannia in this place is assuredly put for Britany in France.--E.  Estland is probably meant for Shetland, formerly called Yaltaland or Hitland, and afterwards changed into Zet-land and Shetland. This will appear more distinctly in the sequel, when the names given by Zeno to the particular islands of the group, come to be compared with, the modern names.--Forst.  Grisland seems to be the island which lies to the eastward of Iceland, called Enkhuyzen; perhaps the island of Grims-ey to the north, of Iceland.--Forst.  Probably Hamer, a place on the north of Mainland.--Forst.  Engrgroneland, Groenland, or Greenland.--Forst.  The poultry here mentioned in the text; must have been ptarmagans and the flesh that of the reindeer.--Forst.  The lime or mortar here described, appears to be the terra puzzuolana or terras, a compound of lime and oxide of iron, which forms an indestructible cement, even under water; and the remarkably light stones ejected from the volcano, and used in the construction of their vault, were probably of pumice.--E.  The greater part of this concluding paragraph must necessarily be in the language of the editor; perhaps of Ramusio. It contains, however, some palpable contradictions, since Nicolo Zeno could hardly be supposed to mention the rest of the Zenos, descendants of his grand-nephew, while still living himself; neither does it appear how the sons of Nicolo got back to Venice; and there is no account of Antonio ever being allowed to return at all.--E
Boeiend! Het lijkt dat er meerdere eilanden naast IJsland zijn geweest! Friesland kan niet één van de Orkneys zijn geweest, want het staat dat het groter was dan Ijsland, tenzij het na de aardbeving gesplitst werd in meer delen.Op de kaarten ziet het er kleiner uit dan IJsland.
Men spreekt ook van een eiland dat Estland genoemd werd. Ik vraag me af of de bewoners ervan later naar het tegenwoordige Estland zijn gevlucht. In het verhaal wordt een vulkaan op Friesland genoemd en dat het er erg koud was. In mijn meditatie zag ik dus een vulkaan. Op IJsland is het niet koud, dan vind ik het wat opmerkelijk dat het op Friesland toch koud zou zijn geweest. Misschien werd dat gebied niet door de Gulf Stream geraakt. Wat ook opvallend is is de naam Enkhuizen, dat Nederlands is. Dat zou een ander eiland in dat gebied zijn geweest. Waarom zou het een Nederlandse naam hebben?
Veel vragen dus. Een andere mogelijkheid is dat al die eilanden eigenlijk in de binnenaarde liggen en dat de zeevaarders er niet achter zijn gekomen.
Goed van je. Aan die mogelijkheid van de binnenaarde heb ik nog niet gedacht. Misschien bestaat er een portal naar de binnenaarde die zich op gezette tijden opent. Ook in de Bermuda driehoek gebeurt iets dergelijks. Schepen en vliegtuigen verdwijnen in het niets. Het is leuk om daar over na te denken. Ja en die plaatsnaam overeenkomsten zijn heel interessant. Hoe dat zit valt niet te zeggen.
Haha... Ja, maar ik moet wel iets meer informatie verzamelen voor een eigen conspiratie theorie. Er begint wel iets te schemeren...
We kunnen ons wel iets afvragen... Waarom wordt het verhaal van de gebroeders Zeno in twijfel getrokken? Is die geschiedenis echt een hoax, of zijn er personen en organisaties die er belang bij hebben het te ontkrachten? Dat is de vraag!
Er is dus wel een ondiepte in de Atlantische Oceaan gevonden op de plaats van het eiland. Reden om iets verder te kijken dan je neus lang is.
Wanneer je naar bovenstaand vergelijkingsmateriaal kijkt, zie je rond IJsland veel meer eilandjes weergegeven op de oude kaart, dan op de satellietfoto. Nu zijn op die plaatsen ondieptes te vinden. Verder zie je langs de kusten nu veel meer diepe inhammen, dan vroeger. De zeespiegel is dus duidelijk flink gestegen in de afgelopen eeuwen. Op de plaats waar Friesland zou hebben gelegen, zie je ook een ondiepte in de oceaan. Dus is het aannemelijk dat daar een eiland onder de golven is verdwenen.
Men ontkent niks zo maar zonder reden. De elite heeft dus zeker een heel goede reden om het bestaan te ontkennen van dat en misschien ook andere nabijliggende eilanden die naar het bodem van de zee zijn gegaan. Zou men ze ook met opzicht heeft laten zinken?
Nou, dat de eilanden zijn verdwenen, kan een een natuurlijke reden hebben. Dat is de stijging van de zeespiegel door het smelten van de poolkappen. In Nederland is gedurende de eeuwen hetzelfde gebeurd. Hele stukken land zijn in zee verdwenen. Vlak na de ijstijd was de zeespiegel tientallen meters lager dan nu het geval is... Maar misschien was er iets met dat eiland Friesland wat geheim moest blijven.
Het zou natuurlijk ook kunnen dat de zeebodem gedaald is door een catastrofe rond het jaar 1740. Ik had ook al beschreven dat op de tekening veel minder diepe inhammen bij IJsland te zien zijn dan op de satellietfoto. Dat zou kunnen betekenen dat het hele gebied rond Friesland inclusief IJsland gedaald zou zijn door een gebeurtenis waar we niet vanaf weten.